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Thiamine (Vitamin B1), a water-soluble B-complex vitamin.

Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
 
 DESCRIPTION 
 Thiamine is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin that is unstable in the presence of heat, air, and water. Thiamine is not stored in the body in large amounts and therefor must be supplied daily through diet. 
 FUNCTIONS 
 Thiamine is essential for carbohydrate metabolism through its coenzyme functions. Coenzymes are “helper molecules” which activate enzymes, the proteins that control the thousands of biochemical processes occurring in the body. The thiamine-coenzyme, thiamine pyrophosphate or TPP, is the key for several reactions in the breakdown of glucose to energy. TPP acts as coenzyme in oxidative decarboxylation and transketolase reactions. Thiamine also plays a role in the conduction of nerve impulses and in aerobic metabolism. Older people absorb thiamine less efficiently. 
 ACTIONS 
 Thiamine has a beneficial effect on mental attitude. It improves the learning capacity and is necessary for consistent growth in children. Thiamine improves muscle tone in the stomach, intestines, and heart. It improves food assimilation and digestion - particularly of starches, sugar, and alcohol. Thiamine is a mild diuretic and keeps water balance in check, and improves excretion of fluid in the body. It decreases rapid heart rates, shrinks enlarged hearts, normalizes electrocardiograms, essential in production of hydrochloric acid - aids in digestion, Anodyne, antistress, increases energy. 
 INDICATIONS 
 Alcoholism, Alzheimer’s disease (0.1-3 g/day), amblyopia, anemia, anorexia, Bell’s palsy, beriberi, canker sores, circulatory problems, colitis, congestive heart failure, constipation, delirium, diabetes mellitus, diarrhea, encephalopathy, fatigue, fever, fibrocystic disease of the breast, fibromyalgia, gastritis, headache, heartburn, herpes simplex, herpes zoster (shingles), HIV, improves morale, indigestion (dyspepsia), influenza, irritability, leg cramp, loss of appetite, low energy, lumbago, Ménière’s syndrome, mental ability, mental illness, migraine, myocarditis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, nausea, neuralgia, neuritis, night blindness, pain, pellagra, poliomyelitis, post partum recovery, pregnancy, sciatica, shingles, stress, worms. 
 SIGNS OF DEFICIENCY 
 Appetite loss, beriberi, constipation, depression, difficulty concentrating, enlarged heart, fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders, hypersensitivity, memory loss, mental confusion, muscle weakness or paralysis, nausea, polyneuritis, rapid heartbeat, vomiting. Eating sugar, smoking, and drinking depletes thiamine in the body. 
 SIGNS OF TOXICITY 
 There are no known toxic effects with thiamine, however, large doses may cause B-complex imbalances. Large doses, 100+ mg can cause drowsiness in some people. 
 PREPARATION & DOSAGES 
 3-10 mg’s three times/day. 1.
 SIDE EFFECTS 
 (Possible) Skin rash, itching, wheezing (most likely after injection). 
 DRUG INTERACTIONS 
 When combined with muscle relaxants, Vitamin B1 can produce excessive muscle relaxation. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption decrease Vitamin B1 absorption. Cabonated beverages and foods or beverages with citrates can decrease the effectiveness of Vitamin B1. 
 CONTRAINDICATIONS 
 Allergies to Vitamin B1. Consult your health care professional if you have kidney or liver disease, pregnant or nursing. 
 SYNONYMS 
 Aneurine mononitrate, antineuritic factor, antineuritic vitamin, antiberiberi vitamin, beta-hydroxy-ethylthiazolium chloride, thiamin, Thiamin Nitrate, thiamine, Vitamin B1 Nitrate. 
 FOOD SOURCES 
 Asparagus, beef kidney, beef liver, brewer's yeast, brown rice, dried legumes, garbanzo beans

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